1. How do you separate Foreground (FG), Middleground (MG) and Background (BG) in a framed image?


In the image above, the Lamp is in the Foreground, the Human Characters in the Long Shot (i.e., on the border between the Middle and the Background) and the blue light through the windows and beyond are the Background.

Separating an image into ground is the photographer's job.

In seven ways that can be done :

  • Lensing - Wide lens shows close objects/subjects gigantically bigger than the very small Background objects/subjects. Tele lens does the opposite.
  • Color of property, costume and light
  • Brightness
  • Focus
  • Motion/Movement
  • Shot Magnification - Different character size in different grounds
  • Direction from which light is coming
You can see a good example of all these in motion picture, in the following video.

2. What do you understand by Composition?

Ans. Composition is the art of arranging Characters and Properties in the frame. 

These things must be kept in mind.
  • The Aspect Ratio, or shape, of the frame
  • The size of the display screen
  • The golden section, or the Rule of the Third
  • Looking Space
  • Head Space
  • Image Magnification of the character
  • Establishing the figure - Understanding what is figure and what is ground
I asked you to read my blog. I guess you have read this article. https://filmschoolnovel.blogspot.in/2013/08/fwd-composition.html

Remember the class lectures. Follow classnotes on questions regarding composition.

3. What is Contrast?

Ans. Drawing with what marker on white board makes no contrast. 

Contrast is the difference between the Ground and Figure.

The difference can be in brightness (or, tones of gray), and in color.

For further examples, follow my blog that I officially gave you as reading material in the class.

You remember these images that I showed in the class.

This image uses the highest contrast - black and white.

This images shows two more tones - light and dark gray besides black and white

This has 14 different tones of gray besides black and white. This image is almost realistic, because of smooth change in brightness. Less Contrast.

This image has the least contrast - 254 different gray tones in between black and white.

Hence, contrast levels play an important role in image.

4. Minimum number of tones required for a realistic image

Ans. The last image in the previous answer.

Black + White  + 254 different gray tones = 256 tones

5. Different ways of establishing figure, separating from ground.


  • Brightness
  • Focus
  • Color
  • Size
  • Human Face
  • Movement
  • Drama
6. Different Types of Artificial Light

Ans. Consult the pdf on Lighting.

7. Five Controllable factors of lighting.

Ans. Consult my blog, https://filmschoolnovel.blogspot.in/2013_10_01_archive.html

and the lighting pdf that I gave you.

8. What is Ratio Lighitng?

Ans. Consult the last three days' dictation note.

Ratio between the Key light and the fill light and the face. Also, the ratio between the Key and the back, and the fill and the back. It must be mentioned which ratio.

Changing ratio, mood is changed.

9. How many basic positions of light placement are there in total? Where would you put the light for Rembrandt lighting?

Ans. Consult the last notes. 

24 positions.

4:30 position for Rembrandt.

10. Types of Reflectors and Diffusers.

Ans. Consult the lighting pdf.

11. Different types of lens according to their functions.

Ans. Consult last three days notes.

Wide Angle, Normal, Narrow Angle.

12. Which factors control Depth of Field

Ans. Consult last days class notes.

  • Focal Length of lens
  • Aperture size
  • Focusing Distance
  • Viewing Screen Size
  • Sensor Size
  • Viewing Distance

13. How many types of lenses exist?

Ans. Consult the dictation notes.

bi-Convex, bi-concave, plano-convex, plano-concave, convex-concave

14. What is the Rule of the Third?

Ans. Discussed in length in the class


I have asked you to follow this blog. I hope you did. Large part of this is your text book.

14. Primary and secondary colors of light.

Ans. Follow dictation notes.

Red, Green and Blue. Cyan, Magenta and Yellow.

15. How is color photography actually black and white photography?

Ans. Discussed in length in the class.

Full details in the blog which I gave you weeks ago.


16. (a) How to separate different planes of an image?
      (b) Why to separate?

Ans. (a) Same as Ans. 1

         (b) To create realistic feeling.

17. What is Five-point lighting system?

Ans. Consult dictation notes.

Key - Fill- Backlight - Kicker - Background

18. Different Angles of View.

Ans. Consult dictation notes. 

Wide, Normal and Narrow/Tele.

19. What is one human eye's angle of view called? How much is it?

Ans. Normal Angle of View. It is around 50°. 50mm lens captures the same Angle of View in a Full-Frame camera such as 5D MKIII.

20. What does 18% Gray Card indicate?

Ans. Consult dictation notes.

Mean between white and black. A complete answer is needed. Follow the dictation notes.

21. Different Shot Magnifications

Ans. Consult dictation notes.

22. Perspective

Ans. Method of showing 3D reality ion 2D plane. For elaboration Consult dictation notes.

23. Focus Pulling

Ans. In motion picture camera, focus is not fixed or auto. Someone has to continuously maintain focus along with moving subject or moving camera. That act of maintaining focus is called focus pulling.

24. Focal Length

Ans. Focal Length is the distance between the optical center of the lens and the sensor when a subject at infinite distance from the camera sensor is kept in sharp focus.

This complicated answer was explained in class, and is in your dictation notes.